Compiled, Translated and Annotated
Abu Hibban & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari
All the books of history mention the major companions, his family members and his sympathisers advised Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) not to venture to Koofah and also highlighted the dangers of this. From amongst the companions were the likes of Abdullaah ibn Umar, Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree, Abu Dardaa, Abu Waaqid al-Laithee, Jaabir bin Abdullaah, Abdullaah ibn Abbaas and Hussains brother Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah.(May Allaah be pleased with them All)
Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) did not reply or present any major reasons, not did he provide any explanation and more than likely the other companions would have reasoned with him further. Yet Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) followed his instinct based on the thousands of letters he received from Koofah from the Koofee Rafidhah Shee’ah and because he had received numerous letters he assumed it would be, no doubt beneficial to venture and go to Koofah based on the (false) overwhelming support and consolation he received.
It is also mentioned in the books of history that Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) was on his way to Koofah that he received the news of the death of his first cousin, that Muslim ibn Aqeel was martyred, who he had sent to find out the reality of the support he was receiving from Koofah.
After receiving this news Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) lost all his trust on the people of koofah and intended to return back to Madeenah. However the brothers of Muslim ibn Aqeel sought recompense and justice for their brothers unlawful death and so Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) continued with them. Which we may add the Koofee Rafidhah Shee’ah were yet again responsible for Muslim ibn Aqeels death
“So hence Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) intended to return back but the brothers of Muslim ibn Aqeel who were with him and they said, “We swear by Allaah we will not return up until we seek revenge or we die ourselves.” (Taareekh Tabaree 4/292)
So in this way Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) and the people with him continued their journey towards Koofah.
Similarly both histories are agreed ie the sunni and shee’ahs that when Hussain reached Karbala, the governor of Koofah, Ibn Ziyaad forcefully sent Umar ibn Sa’ad (ibn Abee Waqqaas). When Umar ibn Sa’ad spoke to Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) according to numerous established reports that Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) said to him,
“Give me the right to 3 things, either let me go to the borders (of the islamic lands), or let me return back to madeenah or let me go directly to Yazeed ibn Mu’awiyyah so that I can give him my pledge of allegiance! So Umar (ibn Sa’ad) accepted this from him.” (al-Asaabah Fee Tamayyiz as-Sahaabah 2/71)
Umar ibn Sa’ad accepted this proposal of Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) and wrote to Ubaidullah ibn Ziyaad informing him of Hussains (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) proposal, however Ubaidullah ibn Ziyaad rejected all three options and rather obligated Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) to give his pledge of allegiance to him on behalf of Yazeed.
“(Umar Ibn Sa’ad) wrote to Ubaidullaah (ibn Ziyaad) who said I will not accept anything unless he gives his pledge of allegiance on my hands.” (al-Asaabah 2/71, Taareekh Tabaree 4/293)
Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) was not ready to accept this due to his honour and dignity and rightly so. He rejected Ibn Ziyaads condition which eventually led to the turmoil at karbala and the martyrdom of our companion and the grandson of the Messenger of Allaah (Sallalahu Alayhee Wasallam) and his unjust killing. Indeed he was oppressed by the Koofee Rafidhah Shee’ah
Other books which also mention Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) had decided to give his pledge of allegiance to Yazeed have been mentioned in the following books,
Tahdheeb ut-Tahdheeb (2/328-353)
Taareekh Tabaree (4/293)
Tadheeb Taareekh Ibn Asaakir (4/325-337)
al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (8/170-175)
Kaamil Ibn Aatheer (3/283)
What is further worthy to be noted if some of the false allegations levied at Yazeed (Rahimahullah) were true then why would Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) reconsider giving him his pledge of allegiance!!! Furthermore Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) did believe Yazeed (Rahimahullah) to be a Faasiq ie an open sinner or someone who was not capable of being the Ameer as if this was not the case Hussain would never have changed his opinion with regards to giving him his pledge of allegiance.
These points show Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) was tricked and deceived by the Koofee Shee’ahs and this is why upon hearing the news about the death of his cousin Muslim Ibn Aqeel, Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) changed his opinion and was dismayed with the Koofee Shee’ahs.
These details further allude, Ibn Ziyaad army which was compromised of the same Koofee Shee’ahs who had initially written letters inviting Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) to come to Koofah, were there therefore directly responsible for Hussain (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) death and the death of Ahlul Bayt.
The same Koofee Shee’ahs manipulated and distorted Umar ibn Sa’ads attempt of reconciliation and his presentation of Hussains proposal of the 3 options to Ibn Ziyaad when the Koofee Rafidhah Shee’ah barked in outburst in Ibn Ziyaads court and coerced him to reject Hussains (RadhiAllaahu Anhu) options.