The one that curses the Sahabah is categorised as follows:
The first category: If he curses all of them or accuses the majority of them of disbelief and apostasy, except for a small group¹, then this indeed constitutes an act of disbelief due to him rejecting the testimony of Allah (Mighty and Majestic) as expressed in His Statement:
“Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you ˹O Prophet˺ under the tree.”
And surely it has been established that those that pledged allegiance under the tree were numbered one thousand and four hundred, with some narrations mentioning them to be one thousand and five hundred.
The second category: As for those that curse some from amongst them, then this issue has details; If he curses some from amongst them due to a belief, i.e., perceiving that they had erred, that they were negligent, and that they were afflicted with whatever had befallen them, from the angle of belief (I’itiqad) – similar to the beliefs held by the Khawarij, then verily this is from the major sins, and it does not constitute an act that removes one from the Religion. If one curses some of them out of rage and hatred for them, then verily this is disbelief and apostasy. The People of Knowledge say, ‘Allah (Mighty and Majestic) has said in description of the Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ:
“…that He may enrage the disbelievers with them.”
Hence, anyone who harbours rage in his heart for the Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ is characterised as being among those whom Allah (Mighty and Majestic) has identified as disbelievers.’²
Regarding the Mothers of the Believers, then the ruling on cursing them is the [same] ruling on cursing the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them all). As for slandering the Mothers of the Believers, or one from amongst them, such as ‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her) or other than her, by claiming she was not chaste, then this constitutes an act of disbelief in Allah. Thus, whoever slanders a wife from the wives of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has disbelieved due to rejecting the statement of Allah (Mighty and Majestic) and what He has decreed for his Prophet ﷺ. However, this differs from the state of those that slandered [‘A’isha (may Allah be pleased with her)] during the time of the Prophet ﷺ, as the Ayat vindicating her innocence were revealed after the famous incident of Al-Ifk. As for after the Ayat declaring her innocence were revealed, after the revelation of His statement:
“Allah forbids you from ever doing something like this again, if you are ˹true˺ believers.”
Then He made that a condition of Al-Iman, so whoever slanders a wife from the wives of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ after that has surely disbelieved by that, as the People of Knowledge have established.
[Sharh Lum’atu’l-I’tiqad of Shaykh Salih Aal Ash-Shaykh, may Allah preserve him,
¹ [TN:] The Rafidhi Iranian scholar, ‘Ali An-Namazi Ash-Shahrudi, said, “The sixth benefit: The large number of narrations necessitate the apostasy [of the Sahabah] other than three or four after the Prophet ﷺ, and it is the ‘asl [i.e., default ruling] for every Sahabi that remained after the Prophet ﷺ and did not die as a martyr during his time ﷺ, due to giving precedence to [Abu Bakr] in the matter of leadership over [‘Ali].” [Mustadrakat ‘Ilm Ar-Rijal Al-Hadith, p. 67]
² [TN:] Al-Baghawi in Tafsir of this Ayah narrated, “Malik bin Anas said, ‘Whoever wakes up with hatred in his heart towards the Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, then this Ayah surely applies to him.” [Tafsir Al-Baghawi, under 48:29]