Itihaf ul-Basim Fi Tahqiq Muwatta al-Imam Malik [Talkhis al-Qabisi] Riwayah Abdur Rahman ibn al-Qasim
Tahqiq, Takhrij, Sharh
Muhadith Zubair Ali Zai
Translated Abu Ubaydah
Translated, Checked & Additional Notes
Abu Hibban & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari
Combining Two Prayers Whilst Travelling
Abu at-Tufail: One hadith
 From Malik from Abu az-Zubair (Muhamad Ibn Muslim Ibn Tadrus) al-Makki from Abu at-Tufail Amir Ibn Wathila that Mu’adh Ibn Jabal (Radi Allahu Anhu) reported that he went along with Allah’s Messenger (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) in the year of the expedition of Tabuk (for Jihad) and the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) combined the noon (Dhuhr) and afternoon (Asr) prayers together and the sunset (Magrib) and night (Esha) prayers together.
Then he (Mu’adh Ibn Jabal (Radi Allahu Anhu)) said, on the other day he (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) deferred the prayers; he then came out (of his tent) and offered the noon (Dhuhr) and afternoon (Asr) prayers together. He then went in (the tent) and (later on) came out and then after that offered the sunset (Magrib) and night (Esha) prayers together and then he (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said “Allah willing, you will reach the fountain of Tabuk by tomorrow and you will not be able to come to that until it is dawn, and he who happens to reach there should not touch its water until I come.”
Mu’adh Ibn Jabal (Radi Allahu Anhu) then said, “We came to that and two persons (amongst) us reached that fountain before us and it was a thin flow of water like the shoelace. Allah’s Messenger (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) asked them both, “Have any of you touched the water from this fountain?” They said: Yes. So Allah’s Messenger (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) scolded them, and he said to them what Allah wanted him to say. The people then took water of the fountain in their palms until it became somewhat significant and filled it into some container. Then Allah’s Messenger (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) washed his hands and his face too in it, and then, took that water and put it in that (fountain) and there gushed forth abundant water from that fountain, until all the people drank to their fill. He (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) then said, “O Mu’adh, it is hoped that if you live long you would see its water irrigating the gardens in this area well.”
[GRADING] – [SAHIH]
[REFERENCES] – [MUSLIM]
Al-Muwatta (Yahya’s narration (1/143, 144 hadith no.326, book 9, chapter 1, hadith no.2), at-Tamhid (12/193, 194) and he said,”this hadith is established as being [Sahih] authentic.” and al-Istidhkar (no.296)
Transmitted by Muslim (10/706 after hadith no.2281) from the hadith of Malik and Abu az-Zubair clarified hearing this hadith from Abu at-Tufail Amir Ibn Wathila in Musnad Ahmad (5/229) and Ibn Khuzaima (no.966)
[UNDERSTANDING FROM THE HADITH]
1) It is allowed to combine the prayers whilst travelling as follows, Dhuhr and Asr (two rak’ah + two rak’ah) and Magrib and Esha (three rak’ah and two rak’ah).
2) The Khalifa can participate in the battle with his soldiers and army against the disbelievers.
3) The battle of Tabuk was against the Christians of Sham who wanted to attack the Muslims. Some people of knowledge have said that this occurred in the month of Rajab in the ninth year of Hijra. See at-Tamhid (12/196)
4) From this hadith it is known that the traveler can combine prayers whilst he is lodging during his journey. See at-Tamhid (12/196)
5) The meaning of combining early is to pray Asr at the time of Dhuhr time and to pray Esha at the time of Magrib. The meaning of combining late is to pray the Dhuhr at the time of Asr and to pray the Magrib at the time of Esha. The meaning of combining formally is to pray the Dhuhr at the end time of Dhuhr and to pray the Asr at the beginning time of Asr and combine this. Likewise to pray the Magrib at the end time of Magrib and to pray the Esha at the beginning time of Esha. These are the three types of combinations which are allowed for combining prayers. Accepting only one of these types and rejecting the other two is incorrect.
6) This hadith mentions a great miracle of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam). The miracle was that Allah made an active fountain of water occur due to the blessed wudhu water of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam). Centuries later Muhamad Ibn Wadah saw this fountain. See at-Tamhid (12/208 and its chain is [Sahih] authentic)
7) The Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) used to inform about the unseen matters through the revelation of Allah. Ibn Abdul Bar said, “And in this is that the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) used to inform about the unseen things (through revelation) which would occur after him and this is not strange and neither was this an unknown due to his status. May Allah elevate his (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) remembrance. ” at-Tamhid (12/208)
Remember that the One who knows the unseen is a specific attribute of Allah alone.
8) It is never allowed to go against the guidance and command of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam).
9) Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri asked Salim Ibn Abdullah Ibn Umar, Can you join Dhuhr and Asr when travelling?” He said, “Yes, there is no harm in that. Haven’t you seen the people (combine and) pray on Arafah?” (Muwatta Imam Malik 1/145 hadith no.330 and its chain is [Sahih] authentic)
10) Also see hadith no.109 and no.199