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The Decision of the Hanafi Fuqaha (Jurists) on the Issue of Hazir Nazir

Compiled, Translated and Annotated
Abu Hibbaan & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari
First Published in 1997

(i.e. the Messenger of Allaah  (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) is with us and has the knowledge of the Unseen)

Shaykh Hasan ibn Mansoor al-Ma’roof Biqaadeekhaan (d.592H) writes that: 

“A man did nikaah with a woman without any witnesses and at the time of the nikaah he said to the woman “We make Allaah and his Messenger our witnesses.” The fuqahaa‘ (Islaamic jurisprudents) have said that this statement of the man is disbelief (kufr), because he held the belief that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) had the knowledge of the unseen whereas he didn’t have the knowledge of the unseen when he was alive so how would he then have it after his death.” [Fatawaa Qaadee Khaan (p. 883) ] 

Al-’Allaamah ’Abdur-Rasheed Abul-Fattaah Zaheerud-Deen al-Lululghee (d.540H) writes that:

 “A man without witnesses married a woman (and the witnesses were not present). Addressing the woman he said “I am doing nikaah with you whilst making Allaah and his Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) my witnesses,” then that individual will become a kaafir (disbeliever), because he came to the belief that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) has the knowledge of the unseen, because the one who doesn’t have knowledge then how can he become a witness. The person who has this ’aqeedah that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) had the knowledge of the unseen and he is present and with us then he is a kaafir.” [Fataawaa Walu al-Jeeyah wa Kadha Beeree Haashiyah Ishbah] 

Shaykh Aboo Haneefah at-Thasnee Zaynul-’Aabideen Ibn Najeem al-Misree (d.970H) says: 

“If anyone takes Allaah and Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) as witnesses for nikaah then from the start, that person will become a kaafir because he held the belief that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) knows the knowledge of the unseen.” [Bahrur-Raqiaq (5/16)] 

Sultaan Aalamgeer (d.1118), the Islamic Constitution, Law and Principles which he set out in India with the help of five hundred fuqahaa‘. In it, it has the explanation, 

“That a man did nikaah without any witnesses and he said “I make Allaah and his Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) my witnesses,” or he says “I make Allaah’s Messenger my witness,” or he says “I make Allaah and his Angels my witnesses.” then such an individual will become a kaafir. If he says I make the Angels on my right and left sides (kiraaman-kaatibeen) as my witnesses then he will not be a kaafir (Because both these Angels are present with us but the nikaah (marriage) will be invalid.” [Fataawaa Alamgeer (2/412)] 

In the famous and well-known Hanafee Fiqh book Fataawaa Tataarkhaniyyah it is written, 

“The one who makes Allaah and his Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) as witnesses for nikaah, then his nikaah will be invalid and the individual will become a kaafir because he held the belief that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) had the knowledge of the unseen.” 

It is written in the well-known Fataawaa Jawahir Ikhlaaqiyyah 

“That if someone understood that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) had the knowledge of the unseen then he becomes a kaafir and if this ’aqeedah is held about someone else, then how can the individual remain a Muslim?”

All these Hanafee Fuqahaa‘ have clarified that the individual who holds the ’aqeedah that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) had the knowledge of the unseen or he was present with us then he commits an act of disbelief (kufr). 

Imaam Abee Ibn Abee Bakr (d.593H), the author of Hidaayah in his book Tajnees (p.297). 

Al-’Allaamah Taahir Ibn Ahmad (d.542H) in Khulaasatul-Fataawaa (4/354). 

Imaam ’Abdur-Rahmaan (d.561H) in Fusool Eemadiyyah (p. 64). 

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Khawarzamee al-Mashoor Bil-Bazaazee (d.827H) in Fataawaa Bazzaziyyah (p. 325). 

Al-Muhaddith al-’Allaamah Badrud Deen al-’Aynee (d.855H) in Umdatul-Qaaree (11/520). 

Al-Haafidh Ibnul-Hammaam Muhammad Ibn ’Abdul-Waahid (d.861H) in Masaayarah M’a al-Masamarah (2/88) printed in Egypt. 

Al-Muhaddith ’Alee Ibn Sultaan, commonly known as Mullaa ’Alee Qaaree (d.1014H) in Sharh Fiqhul-Akbar (p. 185). 

Al-’Allaamah Ibn ’Aabideen al-Hanafee (d.970H) in Shaamee (2/306). 

Thanaa‘ullaah Pani Patee (d.1225H) in Maalaa ba’d Mun (p. 176). 

And other Hanafee Fuqahaa‘ have clarified that the individual who holds the ’aqeedah that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) had the knowledge of the unseen or he was present with us then he commits an act of disbelief (kufr).

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2 comments

  1. zameer ibn sultan

    u mentiond And other fuqahaa hv clarifid this plz gv me full details

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