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[Sharh Muwatta Imam Malik – Shaikh Zubair Ali Zai] – Hadith No.46 –:– Some Issues Concerning Itikaf

Itihaf ul-Basim Fi Tahqiq Muwatta al-Imam Malik [Talkhis al-Qabisi] Riwayah Abdur Rahman ibn al-Qasim

Tahqiq, Takhrij, Sharh

Muhadith Zubair Ali Zai

Translated Abu Ubaydah
Translated, Checked & Additional Notes
Abu Hibban & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari

Some Issues Concerning Itikaf

Amra from A’isha

[46] From Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa Ibn az-Zubayr from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that A’isha, the wife of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) said, “When the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) did Itikaf he would bring his head near to me and I would comb it. He would only go into the house to relieve himself.”

[GRADING] – [SAHIH]

Ibn Shihab has narrated with anana in this chain however he clarified hearing (this hadith) from Urwa Ibn az-Zubayr from A’isha in Nasa’i in al-Kubra (no. 3381)  

[REFERENCES] 

Al-Muwatta (Yahya’s narration 1/312 hadith no.700, book 19, chapter 1, hadith no.1) at-Tamhid (8/316), al-Istidhkar: (no.649, no.652)   

Transmitted by Muslim (no.297) from the hadith of Malik.

[UNDERSTANDING FROM THE HADITH]

1) It is not allowed to go out of the Masjid whilst in the state of itikaf without a valid excuse legislated in the Shari’ah.

2) It is necessary to take into consideration the manners (etiquettes) of itikaf whilst in the state of itikaf, so much that worldly matters (issues) should be avoided (refrained from being done).

3) Having sexual relations, intimacy and intercourse with one’s wife whilst being in the state of itikaf is prohibited by ijma.

4) It is allowed for the person who is performing itikaf to wash their hair, comb it, cut or shave the hair of their head, cut the nails and take a bath.

5) According to the majority of the scholars, it is not allowed for the person performing itikaf to leave the masjid to visit the sick or attend a funeral prayer. Sharh as-Sunah of al-Baghawi ((6/398) hadith (no.1836)) Urwa Ibn Zubayr and Zuhri have said that one shouldn’t go to visit the sick and attend a funeral and accept an invitation to a feast (outside the masjid) whilst in the state of itikaf. (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shayba (3/89) hadith (no.9646) and its chain is authentic, (no.9644) and its chain is authentic). Whereas Sa’id Ibn Jubayr, Shu’bi and Hasan Basri have said that it is allowed to visit the sick. (Ibn Abi Shayba (3/88) hadith (no.9632) and its chain is authentic, (no.9636) and its chain is authentic, (no.9639) and its chain is authentic). Sa’id Ibn Jubayr and Hasan Basri have said: it is allowed to attend the funeral prayer. (Ibn Abi Shayba: (no.9634) and its chain is authentic, (no.9639) and its chain is authentic). The harmonisation of these sayings is that visiting an extremely sick person and attending an extremely close relatives or friends funeral near the masjid where one is performing itikaf is allowed. In addition that no (far) travel is needed for these type of actions. Allah knows best.
6) Urwa Ibn Zubayr said, “Itikaf doesn’t occur without fasting” (Ibn Abi Shayba (3/87) hadith (no.9626) and its chain is authentic) Ibn Abas (Radi Allahu Anhu) said, The person performing itikaf should fast (as-Sunan al-Kubra of al-Bayhaqi (4/318) and its chain is authentic) Ibn Abas (Radi Allahu Anhu) didn’t think that this fast was a necessity (condition, pre-requisite, rather it was optional). (as-Sunan al-Kubri of al-Bayhaqi (4/319) and its chain is authentic)

7) Abu Qulaba (Abdullah Ibn Zayd) and Sa’id Ibn Jubayr used to perform itikaf in their tribe’s Masjid. (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shayba (3/90) hadith (no.9660) and its chain is authentic, (no.9663) and its chain is authentic.) Ibrahim Nakha’i said that, there is no problem (sin, fault) in performing itikaf in the tribe’s Masjids. (Ibn Abi Shayba (3/91) hadith (no.9660) and its chain is authentic) Note: In the hadith where the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) said, “There is no itikaf except in 3 masjids (Baytullah, Masjid Nabawi and Baytul Muqadis). (as-Sunan al-Kubra of al-Bayhaqi (4/316)) Because of the tadlis (An) in the chain of Sufyan Ibn Uyayna this hadith is weak.

8) Zuhri, Hakam Ibn Utaybah, Hamad Ibn Abu Sulayman, Abu Ja’far Muhamad Ibn Ali al-Baqir and Urwa Ibn Zubayr have said that, itikaf should only be performed in the Masjid where prayer is performed in congregation (or Jumah prayer is performed in it) Musanaf Ibn Abi Shayba ((3/91, 92) hadith (no.9673) and its chain is authentic, (no.9674) and its chain is authentic, (no.9675) and its chain is authentic, (no.9676) and its chain is authentic) Sa’id Ibn Jubayr and Shu’bi have said that, it is allowed to go out (of the Masjid where itikaf is being performed) for Jumah prayer. (Ibn Abi Shayba understanding (3/88) hadith (no.9632) and its chain is authentic, (no.9636) and its chain is authentic). It is known (from this) that it is better to perform itikaf in the Masjid where prayer is performed in congregation and Jumah is performed. Allah knows best.

9) Hakam Ibn Utaybah said, if the person who is performing itikaf dies whilst being in that state then no making up of itikaf will be performed on his behalf. (Ibn Abi Shaybah (3/94) hadith (no.9693) and its chain is authentic)

10) It is allowed for whichever woman who suffers from flooding menstruation (continuous menstruation, bleeding between periods) illness to perform itikaf in that condition. Musanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah ((3/94) hadith (no.9700) with the words: “That some wives of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) performed itikaf and they were bleeding in between their periods” and its chain is authentic, Sahih Bukhari: (no.309, no.310, no.311, no. 2037) also the women will perform itikaf in the Masjid. (Sahih Bukhari: (no.2045)) There is no established proof from any authentic hadith that women should perform itikaf at home. Ibrahim Nakha’i said that, if (in the state of performing itikaf) a woman starts her period (menstruating cycle) then she should stay home in a covered place. (Ibn Abi Shaybah (3/94) hadith (no.9698) and its chain is authentic)

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