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[Sharh Muwatta Imam Malik – Shaikh Zubair Ali Zai] – Hadith No.45 –:– The Times of Prayer

Itihaf ul-Basim Fi Tahqiq Muwatta al-Imam Malik [Talkhis al-Qabisi] Riwayah Abdur Rahman ibn al-Qasim

Tahqiq, Takhrij, Sharh

Muhadith Zubair Ali Zai

Translated Abu Ubaydah
Translated, Checked & Additional Notes
Abu Hibban & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari

The Times of Prayer

The hadith of Bashir Ibn Abu Mas’ud: and the rest of the hadith of A’isha

[45] From Malik Ibn Anas from Ibn Shihab that one day Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz delayed the prayer. Urwa Ibn az-Zubayr came and told him that al-Mughira Ibn Shu’ba had delayed the prayer one day while he was in Kufa and Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari had come to him and said, ‘What’s this, Mughira? Don’t you know that the angel Jibril came down and prayed and the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) prayed.’ Then he prayed again, and the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) prayed. Then he prayed again, and the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) prayed. Then he prayed again, and the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) prayed. Then he prayed again, and the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) prayed. Then Jibril said, ‘This is what you have been ordered to do.’ Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz said, ‘Be sure of what you relate, Urwa. Was it definitely Jibril who established the time of the prayer for the Messenger of Allah?’ “Urwa said, “That’s how it was related to Bashir Ibn Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari by his father.” Urwa said, “The Prophet’s (Sallalaahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) wife and my aunty (my mother’s sister) said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa-Sallam) used to pray the Asr prayer and she would be in his hijr before the sunlight would reach the walls.

[GRADING] – [SAHIH]

Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri clarified hearing (this hadith from Urwa Ibn az-Zubayr) in Bukhari (no. 4007)  

[REFERENCES] – 

Al-Muwatta (Yahya’s narration 1/3, 4 hadith no.1, book 1, chapter 1, hadith 1) at-Tamhid (8/10), al-Istidhkar: (no.1)

Transmitted by Bukhari (no.521, no.522) and Muslim (167/610) from the hadith of Malik.

[UNDERSTANDING FROM THE HADITH]

1) There is a marfu narration from Ibn Abas (Radi Allahu Anhu) that, “The Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) said: Jibril led me in prayer at the House (i.e. the Ka’bah). He prayed the noon prayer with me when the sun had passed the meridian to the extent of the strap of a sandal; he prayed the afternoon prayer with me when the shadow of everything was as long as itself; he prayed the sunset prayer with me when one who is fasting breaks the fast; he prayed the night prayer with me when the twilight had ended; and he prayed the dawn prayer with me when food and drink become forbidden to one who is keeping the fast. On the following day he prayed the noon prayer with me when his shadow was as long as himself; he prayed the afternoon prayer with me when his shadow was twice as long as himself; he prayed the sunset prayer at the time when one who is fasting breaks the fast; he prayed the night prayer with me when about the third of the night had passed; and he prayed the dawn prayer with me when there was a fair amount of light. Then turning to me he said: Muhammad, this is the time observed by the prophets before you, and the time is anywhere between two times. hadith, (Sunan Abu Dawud: (no.393) and its chain is [Hasan] good and at-Tirmidhi: (no.149) said it is [Hasan] and Ibn Khuzaimah authenticated it: (no.325) and Ibn al-Jarud: (no.149, no.150), and al-Hakim (1/197) hadith (no.707) and Naymawi said in Athar as-Sunan: (no.194) and its chain is [Hasan] good) The understanding of this narration is established from the following noble companions (Radi Allahu Anhum):

Abu Hurayrah (Radi Allahu Anhu) (Sunan an-Nasa’i 1/249, 250 hadith no. 503 and its chain is [Hasan] good and Bukhari graded it [Hasan] good/al-Ilal al-Kabir of Tirmidhi 1/203 chapter 46)

Jabir Ibn Abdullah (Radi Allahu Anhu) (Sunan at-Tirmidhi : no.150, and he said, “hadith [Hasan] good”, Sunan an-Nasa’i 1/263 hadith no. 527 and its chain is [Hasan] good and Ibn Hibban authenticated it, al-Ihsan: no.1470, and al-Hakim 1/195, 196, and adh-Dhahabi)

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (Radi Allahu Anhu) (Musnad Ahmad 3/30, hadith no. 11249, and its chain is [Hasan] good)

Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari (Radi Allahu Anhu) (Sunan Abu Dawud no. 394 with the same meaning and the hadith is [Hasan] good and Ibn Khuzaimah authenticated it no.352 and Ibn Hibban, al-Mawarid no. 279 and al-Hakim 1/192, 193

This hadith which shows Jibril leading the prayer is mutawatir. See Qatful azhar (no.23) and nadhmul mutanathir (no.49)

2) There is ijma that the time of Dhuhr starts with Zawal (when the sun starts to decline). (al-Ifsah of Ibn Habirah (1/67), al-Ijma of Ibn al-Mundhir: (no.34), Muratab al-Ijma of Ibn Hazm (pg.26)) Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) (when his rule started) wrote that the time for Dhur is from 1 arm’s length of a shadow till one equivalent (shadow length of the body) (al-Awsath of Ibn al-Mundhir (2/328) Athar (no.948) (check what Thaa denotes?) and its chain is authentic)
Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) wrote to Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Radi Allahu Anhu) saying that he should pray Dhuhr when the sun had started to decline (zawal). (Muwatta al-Imam Malik Yahya’s narration 1/7 hadith no.5, book 1 chapter 1 hadith no.7 and its chain is authentic)
Those narrations which contain that when it is really hot Dhuhr should be prayed at the time of when it is cool, all these Ahadith are connected with travelling as it is established from the hadith in Sahih Bukhari (no.539).
Abu Hurayrah (Radi Allahu Anhu) said, “Pray Dhuhr when the length of your shadow matches your height, Asr when your shadow is twice your height”. (Muwatta al-Imam Malik Yahya’s narration 1/8 hadith no.9 and its chain is authentic) The meaning of this is that Dhuhr can be prayed from zawal till your shadow matches your height meaning the time for Dhuhr prayer is from zawal till your shadow matches your height and the time for Asr prayer is from the shadow matches your height till when your shadow is twice your height. at-Ta’liq al-Mamjad ((pg.41) marginal note (no.9))
Suwayd Ibn Ghaflah (tabi’i kabir ) was so strongly in committed to praying the dhuhr prayer at its early time that he was ready to fight for it and he didn’t care about praying the dhuhr prayer at its later time. He used to tell the people that we prayed the dhuhr prayer behind Abu Bakr and Umar (Radi Allahu anhuma) and its early time. (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (1/323) hadith (no.3271) and its chain is [Hasan] good)

3) In accordance to the 3 Imams (Malik, Shafi’i, Ahmad) (and the majority of scholars) the time of Asr starts when the shadow is equivalent in length of the body. Kitab ul-Umm of Shafi’i (1/73) and Awsath of Ibn Mundhir (2/329)

4) It has come in one narration of Sunan Abu Dawud that later on he (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) continued to pray in the darkness of dawn until his death; he never prayed it again (after this day) in the light of the dawn.” (1/63 hadith (no.394) and this hadith is [Hasan] good, an-Nasikh Wal Mansukh of al-Hazimi (pg.77) and Ibn Khuzaimah authenticated it: (no.352) and Ibn Hibban, al-Ihsan (no.1446), and al-Hakim (1/192, 193) and the hadith has a shahid (witness) Hasan li-Dhatihi in al-Hakim) It is known from this hadith that praying the Fajr prayer in light of the dawn is abrogated therefore this prayer should be prayed in the darkness of dawn. Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) commanded that: “And pray Fajr when all the stars are visible and like a haze in the sky.” (Muwatta al-Imam Malik (1/7) hadith (no.6) book 1, chapter 1, hadith (no.6) and its chain is authentic) and Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) also said, “And pray the morning (Fajr) prayer in the darkness of dawn.” (as-Sunan al-Kubra of al-Bayhaqi (1/456) and it chain is [Hasan] good) Abu Musa al-Ash’ari and Abullah Ibn Zubayr (Radi Allahu Anhuma) used to pray Fajr prayer in the darkness of dawn. (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (1/320) hadith (no.3239, no. 3240) and both chains are authentic) The Khalifah Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Umawi issued the command to pray Fajr prayer in the darkness of dawn. (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (1/320 hadith (no.3237) and its chain is authentic)

5) In the blessed era of the companions (Radi Allahu Anhum) and tabi’in authentic chains of the Messenger’s (Sallalahu Alayhi Was-Sallam) hadith was understood to be a proof (evidence).

6) It is not necessary that every scholar has to have the knowledge of the proofs however it is sometimes possible that some evidences are not known (hidden) from the biggest of biggest scholars.

7) The set (designated, appointed) times for prayer are from Allah the most High

8) It is the duty of the scholars of truth to be busy in spreading the book (Quran) and Sunnah as much as possible all the time.

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2 comments

  1. Assallamu Alaikum wa Rahmtullah hi wa Barakat hu!

    Dear Brother,

    Is their any hadeeth on how the Prophet may peace be upon Him, or The Shabaas radiallahu anhu maintain their prayer timings at the time of cloudy or rainy seasons? Where the shadows reference were visible.

    In Islamic History how was the maintenance of time changed from shadows to watches?

    Awaiting for reply desperately. May Allah reward you to the best!

    Jazaka`Allah wa Khair.

    Faiazur Rahman.

    please mail to ‘faiazur65@gmail.com’

  2. Assallamu Alaikum wa Rahmtullah hi wa Barakat hu!

    Dear Brother,

    Is their any hadeeth on how the Prophet may peace be upon Him, or The Shabaas radiallahu anhu maintain their prayer timings at the time of cloudy or rainy seasons? Where the shadows reference were not visible.

    In Islamic History how was the maintenance of time changed from shadows to watches?

    Awaiting for reply desperately. May Allah reward you to the best!

    Jazaka`Allah wa Khair.

    Faiazur Rahman.

    please mail to ‘faiazur65@gmail.com’

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