In Defence of The Imaam,
Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir Jilani (d.561H)
Series Part 13 – Part 2
Series Compilers, Translated and Annotated
Abu Hibbaan & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari
Zuhd and Tasawwuf.
It should be known that concepts such as Hulool, Wahdatal-Wajood, Wahdash-Shahood and other were found amongst the soofee’s like Ibn Arabee and Abdul-Kareem Jailee, the later soofees and in Mansoor al-Hallaaj. This is the reason why earlier books of so-called Soofee’s had correct Aqeedah in them also but they also fell short in aspects of purifying their souls.
The term soofism was not found amongst the earlier generations especially during the first period. However in the second and third periods the words Zuhd, Aabid and Saaleh would be used for highly pious people and later the word soofee began being used for these people. (See Majmoo Fataawa (6/11).
Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir has a detailed discussion in his al-Ghuniyyah (2/269-336) which is nothing but concerning Zubd and Taqwaa, trust, hope, love and truthfulness in Allaah.
The Shaikh himself refuted Wahdatal-Wajood and said,
“Allaah rises over his throne.. Allaah is upon his throne…..and he is separate from the creation and nothing is hidden from his knowledge and it is not correct to say he is present everywhere and this is what Allaah has mentioned in the Qur’aan, “The most Merciful rose over the Throne.” (Tahaa:5)” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/121-124).
Karamah And Miracles (Mu’ajizah)
The Difference between the two is that a miracle is performed at the hands of the Prophets like the splitting of the moon by our Messenger (Sallahu Alayhee Was-Sallam) and the cooling of the Fire for Ibraaheem (Alyahis-Salaam). A karamah on the other hand is something amazing performed at the hands of a Walee. Howeverthe following need to be understood,
- A mu’ajizah is performed at the hand of a prophet and a karamah in the hands of a Walee.
- Just as a walee’s status cannot reach the status of a Prophet, similarly a walee’s karamah cannot be considered to be synonymous with a Prophets miracle. (Dalaa’il an-Nabuwwah (pgs.109-112).
- The Prophets or walee’s do not have any authority in performing the miracles or karamah’s, their occurrence is due to the command of Allaah. (Soorah al-Israa:90-93).
- It is not permissible for a muslim at all to deny a miracle of a Prophet however a walee’s karamah can be accepted OR rejected. (See Majmoo Fataawa (11/208).
There is no doubt Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir was a pious and righteous individual and it is possible some of the karamah’s attributed to him maybe correct, however so many have been attributed to him by extreme soofee’s who pass the limits and enter the realms of Ghuloo in doing so and most of these are without evidence or authentic chains. So the affair is that many of the karamah’s attributed to him are not true but mere blind love of the soofee’s who forged them and attributed them to him.
Haafidh Dhahabee said,
“I say there is not a shaikh from the major Shayookh’s whose karamah’s are more well known than the karamah’s of Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir, however most of them are not correct and some of them are from the things which are impossible.” (Siyar (20/450).
Haafidh Ibn Katheer also said something very similar. (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/252).
Some of the people who had extreme love for Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir compiled his karamah’s in a book. One such person was Alee bin Yoosuf ash-Shatnoofee who died 150 years after the death of Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir in approximately 713H. (see al-A’laam (5/188), Kashf adh-dhanoon (1/257).
Shatnoofee mentioned the karamah’s of Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir in such a manner as if he was from the Shaikh’s time and the reader is fooled into thinking this. Shatnoofee also attempted to mention these karamah’s with his own chains and most of these are weak due to the narrators in the chain. This is the reason why the research scholars reprimanded Shatnoofee strongly.
So Haafidh Ibn Hajr mentioned from Shaikh al-Kamaal Ja’afar,
“Shatnoofee has mentioned very strange and odd things in this book and the people have criticized most of the incidences he has mentioned and their chains.” (ad-Durr al-Kaaminah (3/142).
Ibn al-Wardee mentioned in his Taareekh,
“Bahjatul-Israar (the name of Shatnoofee’s book) contains such things which cannot be accepted and such exaggerated things have been mentioned about Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir that are not possible for anyone except Allaah.” (Kashf adh-Dhanoon (1/257).
Haafidh Ibn Rajab said,
“Shatnoofee has written a three volume book on Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir and in it he has compiled a mountain of lies. Whereas it is sufficient for a person be declared a liar for him to narrate everything he hears. I have seen some of the quotes in the book but my soul was not content in believing them because firstly the narrations have been taken from unknown people. Secondly not only are their mountains of lies and allegations on Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir but it is also contrary to the status of the Shaikh if attributed to him. The statement of Shaikh al-Kamaal has also passed by me where he says the things Shanoofee has mentioned in his book Bahjatul-Israar have caused him to be accused (of lying).” (Dhail Tabaqaat (1/293) of Ibn Rajab).
Although Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir Jeelaanee also had mistakes like every son of Adam, Haafidh Dhahabee the student of Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah described them as,
“The summary is Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir was a man of great respect however some of his statements still need looking into and weighed up, which we leave to Allaah, and from some of them are lies which have been attributed to him.” (Siyar (20/451).
Shaikh ul-Islaam Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah said,
“Such statements and actions have been mentioned from some of the Mujtahid’s from the Salaf us-Saaliheen which are included as innovations. However the people of knowledge did not take them as innovations rather they took them on the basis of weak narrations thinking the narration was authentic. Similarly they extrapolated from verses and these extrapolations were not correct and they were unable to find specific texts in some of these issues. When someone has fear of Allaah in his heart then he falls under the saying of Allaah, “Oh Rabb if w err or make a mistake then do not account us for it.” And the Saheeh mentions, “Allaah says I accept.” (Majmoo Fataawa (19/191).