In Defence of The Imaam,
Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir Jilani (d.561H)
Series Part 12 – Part 1
Series Compilers, Translated and Annotated
Abu Hibbaan & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari
Ahlul-Bid’ah Waz-Zaigh have attributed all sorts of heretical and innovative beliefs to Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir Jeelaanee, more so in our times especially by the soofee’s of the world, the bareilwee’s the deobandee’s. Some of these individuals have distorted and misinterpreted the teachings of the Shaikh in as much portraying the shaikh to be from amongst the propagator’s of Soofism, Wahdatul-Wajood, Fana, Baqa and Wahdatash-Shahood and other heretical beliefs. These individuals from Zaytuna institute in California, the translator of the reliance of the traveler and their foot soldiers are all upon this, this is their way and this what they propagate. So we humbly ask them show us the uniformity of your beliefs and the beliefs of Shaikh Abdul Qaadir Jeelaanee.
His Life (Summarised)
Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir Jeelaanee’s full name is Abdul-Qaadir bin Abee Saaleh Abdullah bin Jankee Daust al-Jailee (al-Jeelaanee). His kunyah was Abu Muhammad and his title’s were Muhi ud deen and Shaikh ul-Islaam. (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/439), al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/252). Fawaat al-Wafyaat (2/373), Shadhraat adh-Dhahab (4/198).
Imaam Sama’anee referred to him as Imaam al-Hanaabillah (Imaam of the Hanbalee’s) (Dhail A’la Tabqaat al-Hanaabillah (1/291) of Ibn Rajab)
The author of Shadhraat traced his lineage to Hussain bin Alee (Radhiallaahu Anhuma) and he was born in 471H and according to some 470H in the place of Jeelaan. (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/439).
Imaam Dhahabee mentioned he came to Baghdaad in his childhood. (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/439).
His Teachers and Students
Haafidh Dhahabee mentioned the following as his teachers. Qaadheee Abu Sa’eed Makhramee, Abu Ghaalib (Muhammad bin Hussain) Baqalaanee, Ahmad bin Muzaffar bin Saus, Abu Qaasim bin Bayaan, Ja’afar bin Ahmad Siraaj, Abu Sa’ad bin Khasheesh, Abu Taalib Yoosufee and others. (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/440).
From his students Imaam Dhahabee has mentioned, Abu Sa’ad Sama’anee, Umar bin Alee Qurashee, Shaikh Muwaffiq ud deen ibn Qudaamah (the author of the monumental book, Lu’matul Ei’tiqaad), Abdur-Razzaaq bin Abdul-Qaadir and Moosaa bin Abdul Qaadir (both are the sons of the Shaikh), Alee bin Idrees, Ahmad bin Mu’tee Abu Hurairah, Muhammad bin Laith Wastaanee, Akmal bin Mas’ood Haashimee, Abu Taalib Abdul-Lateef bin Muhammad bin Qabeetee and others. (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/440).
After learning the Shaikh began to admonish and cultivate the people with sincerity. As a result Allaah aided him and put much blessing in his work and his circles and his admonishes became very famous, to the extent that the rulers of the time would also participate in his circles aswell as major people of knowledge of his time. The affect of the Shaikh’s admonishing was such that many a people repented for their sins and mistakes. (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/441).
Haafidh Ibn Katheer said,
“After he came to Baghdaad he started seeking knowledge of hadeeth and Fiqh from Abu Sa’eed Makhramee Hanbalee. Abu Sa’eed had a small institution, which he handed over to Shaikh Abdul Qaadir. In this institution the Shaikh would deliver lectures of knowledge and would admonish the people, many people benefited from him.” (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/252).
The Shaikh died in 561H and the age of 90. (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/450)
The Shaikh authored a number of books (which will be quoted from) however many books are also attributed to him which he himself did not write and it is these books which Ahlul-Bid’ah have utilized in disparaging the Shaikh and his Aqeedah.
This the Shaikh’s most famous work and his beliefs, his way and ideology are mentioned in this book. Its proper name chosen by the Shaikh as al-Ghuniyyah ut-Taaliben Tareeq al-Haqq. However some latter people (from the Soofiyyah) have denounced this book and denied it to be a work of the Shaikh on the account of its contents. So in order to repel this fallacy, Haajee Khaleefah said,
“al-Ghuniyyatuh ut-Taalibeen Tareeq al-Haqq is the work of Abul-Qaadir Jeelaanee who died in 561H.” (Kashf adh-Dhanoon (2/121).
Haafidh Ibn Katheer and Shaikh ul-Islaam Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah have mentioned this to be the book of Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir Jeelaanee (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/252), Majmoo Fatwaa (5/15).
He also wrote Fatooh al-Gayb, Fath ur-Rabbaanee Wal-Faidh ar-Rehmaanee and a number of other works.
The Shaikhs Belief’s and Teachings.
From the works of the Shaikh his belief’s and teaching were the same as Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jama’ah. The Shaikh said,
“My belief’s are the belief’s which were upheld by the Companions and the (Salaf us-Saaleh) Pious Predecessors.” (Siyar A’laam an-Nabula (20/442).
Similarly he would also instruct and advise others to adhere to this madhab and the belief of the companions and Salaf us-Saaleh, he would say,
“Upon you is Ittibaa (following and obeying) and not innovation and upon you is the madhab of the Salaf as-Saaleh and this is the straight path you should firmly adhere to.” (al-Fath ur-Rabbaanee (p.35)
He also said,
“It is upon the believer to follow and obey the Sunnah and those upon the Sunnah, the Jama’ah. The Sunnah is what the Messenger of Allaah (Sallalahu Alayhee Was-Sallam) declared to be Sunnah and the Jama’ah is that, which the companions are agreed upon.” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/165)..
There are differences in the Issue of Eemaan between Ahlus-Sunnah and the deviated sects. Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir explained Eemaan just as Ahlus-Sunnah described it. He said,
“We believe Eemaan is the statement of the tongue, the affirmation of the heart and action of the limbs, it increases with obedience and decreases with disobedience. It is strengthened with knowledge and weakened with ignorance…” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/135).
The Shaikh said concerning Tawheed ar-Raboobiyyah and Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah,
“The soul is inclined to obey its creator because The Rabb is his creator and master and it (the soul) is dependent in worshipping its Rabb.” (Fatooh al-Gayb (pg.21)
He also said,
“The person who wishes to enter into Islaam, it is obligatory upon him that he must first say the Shahadah that None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and Muhammad (Sallalahu Alayhee Was-Sallam) is his Messenger. He must also dissociate himself from all the other religions other than Islaam and believe in the oneness of Allaah with his heart.” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/13).
Concerning Asmaa Was-Sifaat
The Shaikh said,
“In regard to this we do not leave the Book and the Sunnah. We recite the verses and the narrations and have faith in them and we leave the kayfiyyah (howness-of these) attributes to Allaah.” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/125).
The Shaikh has refuted the deviated sects on their beliefs of the attributes of Allaah in detail in his book (al-Ghuniyyah (1/125-140) so please refer to it.
Concerning The Qur’aan
Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir said,
“Our belief is the Qur’aan is the speech of Allaah, the holy book and it is revelation which was revealed upon the Messenger of Allaah (Sallalahu Alayhee-Wasallam) by Jibraa’eel.” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/125-140).
In Refutation of Shirk and Innovations.
The Shaikh was a firm propagator of Tawheed and a destroyer of Shirk and innovations as was evident from his statements. Some of them are,
- “Man should supplicate to Allaah, praise and glorify him, then send salutations upon the Messenger of Allaah and then finally ask Allaah for his needs.” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/92).
- “It is unlawful to swear by anyone other than Allaah so if someone wishes to swear then let him do so by Allaah only or otherwise let him remain silent.” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/92).
- “When you visit the graves then do not put your hands on them or kiss them as this is the habit of the jews, nor sit on the graves or rest against them. Then ask Allaah for your needs.” (al-Ghuniyyah (1/91).
- “Follow and obey and do not innovate. Agree with the religion and do not differ, obey and do not disobey, have sincerity and do not do Shirk.Accept Allaah as one and do not turn away from him. Ask Allaah and do not ask others. Ask him for help and do not anyone else for help. Have reliance and trust in him and do not have reliance in anyone else.” (al-Fath ur-Rabbaanee (pg.151).
- “The whole creation is dependent upon him and helpless without him. No can benefit or harm you…” (Fath ur-Rabbaanee (pg.89).
Shaikh ul-Islaam Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah On Shaikh Abdul Qaadir.
It also appears the Shaikh was an upholder of the Salafee Aqeedah as he has in his al-Ghuniyyah refuted and censured all the deviated sects from the Shee’ah Rawaafidh, Murjee’ah, Qadariyyah, Jahmiyyah, Karamiyyah, Mu’tazilah and others. The only one left are the Ashaabul Hadeeth or Ahlus-Sunnah and it is this group of people the Shaikh informed the people to adhere to.
Shaikh ul-Islaam in his refutation of the deviated sects, and he has a recognized status in this, used the statements of Shaikh Abul-Qaadir as supports and witnesses. (see Majmoo Fataawa (5/85), (10/455, 524, 548), (11/604).
So if there were any problems with the Aqeedah of Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir then Shaikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah would have most definitely indicated or clarified them. Rather, we see the contrary to this as he refers and addresses Shaikh Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee as, The Major Shaikh, ash-Shaikh, the Imaam, One of the Imaams and so on. (see Majmoo Fataawa (5/85), (11/604).