Itihaf ul-Basim Fi Tahqiq Muwatta al-Imam Malik [Talkhis al-Qabisi] Riwayah Abdur Rahman ibn al-Qasim
Tahqiq, Takhrij, Sharh
Muhadith Zubair Ali Zai
Translated Abu Ubaydah
Translated, Checked & Additional Notes
Abu Hibban & Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari
What Should the Person Do if He Forgets In the Prayer
Abdurahman al-A’raj: Three Ahadith
 from Malik from Ibn Shihab from al-A’raj that Abdullah Ibn Buhayna (Radi Allahu Anhu) said, “The Messenger of Allah, (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam), prayed two rakas with us and then stood without sitting (in the tashahud position) and the people stood with him. When he had finished the prayer and we waited for him to say the taslim, he said ‘Allah is greater’ and did two sajdas from the sitting position before the taslim and then (came up from the sajdas and) said the taslim.”
[GRADING] – [SAHIH]
Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri clarified hearing (this hadith from Abdurahman al-A’raj) in Bukhari (no.829)
[REFERENCES] – [AGREED UPON]
Al-Muwatta (Yahya’s narration 1/96 hadith no.214, book 3, chapter 17, hadith no.65), at-Tamhid (10/183), al-Istidhkar: (no.184, 185)
Transmitted by Bukhari (no.1224) and Muslim (no.570) from the hadith of Malik
[UNDERSTANDING FROM THE HADITH]
1) No one from the creation is free (or protected) from making mistakes and forgetting except for those who Allah protects.
2) If the person praying salah forgets (to sit down for) the first tashahud and stands up instead, then he shouldn’t sit down (straight away), rather he should complete the prayer (rak’a) and perform the prostration of forgetfulness before or after the salam. If someone stands up then sits back down (straight away after realising the mistake) then according to the majority of the scholars his prayer doesn’t become invalid. See at-Tamhid (10/185)
3) Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqas (Radi Allahu Anhu) was leading the prayer and stood up in the third rak’a (instead of sitting down for tashahud). The people said Subhan Allah however he didn’t sit back down (straight away) and rather he made an indication to the people to stand up and completed the prayer making the two (extra) prostrations (at the end). (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah 2/34 hadith no.4493 and its chain is [Sahih] authentic)
This understanding is also established from Uqba Ibn Amir (Radi Allahu Anhu) in a detailed narration. See al-Mustadrak 1/325 hadith no.1214, and al-Awsat of Ibn al-Mundhir (3/288) and its chain is [Sahih] authentic)
4) Doing salam to one side whilst performing the prostration of forgetfulness is not established from the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) or the noble companions (Radi Allahu Anhum).
5) If the Imam forgets in the prayer and then he forgets to perform the prostration of forgetfulness then according to Hakam Ibn Utba the people praying behind the Imam should perform the prostration of forgetfulness and according to Hamad Ibn Abi Sulayman they don’t need to perform it. (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shayba 2/39 hadith no.4525 and its chain is [Sahih] authentic)
It is established from the hadith of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (Radi Allahu Anhu) (Sahih Bukhari no.1226 and Sahih Muslim no.572) that if the Imam forgets to perform the prostration of forgetfulness then he should still perform it after doing the taslim (with the people who were praying behind him)
6) The scholars have an ijma that it is fardh to perform ruku, sujud, qiyam and the last sitting down (tashahud) in salah. (at-Tamhid 10/189)
Therefore if any one of these have been missed out then the raka would have been missed, and it is necessary to repeat this raka.