Compiled, Translated & Annotated
Abu Hibbaan & Abu Khuzaimah Ansari
READ PART 38 – Mawlid Beginnings & Historical Origins – Rafidhi Fatimids
Th historians differ greatly as to when the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was born ie the exact date however most of them opine it was the 9th of Rabī Al-Awwal.
Abu Sa‘īd Muzaffar Kaukabūrī was himself unsure of the exact date of the Mawlid due to the difference of opinion, he Kawkaburi, who was considered the chief Mawlid innovator, would celebrate the Mawlid on the 8th of Rabi ul-Awwal in one year and on the 12th the following year. (al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah 1:552)
Ibn Dahiyyah, the one who wrote one of the earliest books promoting the Mawlid, was of the opinion the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was born on the 8th of Rabi ul-Awwal and he refutes the notion of it being the 12th of Rabi ul-Awwal (al-Tanwir Fi Mawlid al-Bashir wal-Nazir from al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah 2:260)
Ibn Dahiyyah also mention the 17th of Rabi ul-Awwal as another potential birth date (al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah 2:260)
It is strange how the Barelwis use Imam Ibn Kathirs al-Bidayah to support their views in other things but in such instances they turn a blind eye to such remarks and research. The likes of Saqid Shami are happy to use Ibn Kathir on Imam Ibn Taymiyyah and his alleged book on the Mawlid, so we are we using here too?
The founder of Baraliwism Ahmad Raza Khān said,
“Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was born on the 12th of Rabī Al-Awwal and he died on the same day.” (Malfūzāt 2:220)
Shaikh Abdul Qādir Jilānī said,
“Our Prophet ﷺ was born on the 10th of Muharram.” (Ghuniyyah al-Tālibīn 2:392).
Ahmad Raza Khan said about Shaikh Abdul Qadir al-Jilani,
“The illustrious son and descendant of the Glorious Prophet ﷺ and the true representative and inheritor of Prophetic Bounties, the great Ghawth Shaykh Sayyid ‘Abd al-Qadir Jilani (d 561/1164) states: ‘I see all the cities of Allah as I see a mustard seed in the centre of my palm.’ The Grand Ghawth also states: ‘The pupil of my eye is set on the Luhe-Mahfuz.” (Malfuzat 1:35-36, Barelwi translation)
This is deception at its highest level, on one hand they have this belief about Abdul Qadir al-Jilnai while at the same time reject his view regarding the birth date and hence the Mawlid. The conclusion, Ahmad Raza was categorically lying when he made this statement about Shaykh Abdul Qadir al-Jilani.
Another Barelwi writer, Muhammad Umim Ehsan al-Mujaddadi al-Barkati said,
“The Messenger of Allah ﷺ was born on a Monday in the year of the Elephant, either on the 8th, 9th or the 12th of Rabi ul-Awwal.” (Awjaz al-Siyar Mulhiq Bi-Mishkat al-Masabih 1:586)
Abdul Haq Dehlawi also mentions the 12th of Rabi ul-Awwal being the birth date of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ (Ma Thabt Bil-Sunnah p.288, Madarij al-Nabuwwah 2:23)
Qādi Muhammad Suleimān Mansūrpūrī said,
“Our Prophet ﷺ was born on the 9th of Rabī Al-Awwal, in the year of the elephant, corresponding to 22nd April 571ce, corresponding to the 1st Jith 628 Bikrami in Makkah in the early morning before sunrise. “ (Rehmah Al-Alamīn p.40)
He also said,
“The historians have differed with regards to the birth date, Tabari and Ibn Khaldun said the 12th, Abu Fida said the 10th. However all are agreed the Monday (of the birth) on that year corresponds to the 9th and this is why the 9th of Rabi ul-Awwal seems to be most accurate date of birth.” (Rehmah Al-Alamīn p.40)
Shaikh Sayyid Suleimān Nadwī said,
“As regards to the birth of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ Egypt’s Mahmūd Pashā the astronomer authored a treatise in which he proved mathematically that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was born on the 9th Rabī Al-Awwal corresponding to 20th April 571ce.” (Sirah al-Nabī 1:171)
The Indian historian Akbar Shah Najibabadi said,
“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was born on the 9th of Rabī al-Awwal, in the year of the elephant corresponding to the 40th gathering of Kisrah Naushirwan corresponding to the 22th April 571ce in the morning before sunrise.” (Tārīkh Al-Islām 1:76)
The leader of the Sufi’s, Yusuf bin Ismail Nabahani said,
“And what is famous and well known and what the majority (of the scholars) are agreed upon is that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was born on the 12th of Rabi ul-Awwal.” (Hujjatullah Alal A’lamin p.231)
The Deobandi church father, Ashraf Ali Thanwi has also mentioned a difference of opinion with regards to the exact birth date. (Nashr al-Tayyib p.28)
The likes of the well known scholars were of the view that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ died on the 12th of Rabi ul-Awwal. Imam Nawawi mentioned,
“The Messenger of Allah ﷺ passed away on the Monday morning on the 12th of Rabi ul-Awwal after the 12th year after the Hijra.” (Taqrib Ala Ibn Salah 2:251)
Hafiz Suyuti, who is revered by the proponents of the Mawlid because of his generic reverence of the birth of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, said in explanation of the words of Imam Nawawi,
“The majority (of the scholars) are upon what the author (i.e. Imam Nawawi) mentioned, that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ died on the 12th of Rabi ul-Awwal.” (Tadrib al-Rawi Sharh Tarib al-Nawawi 2:51)
Muhammad Tal’at, the author of Tarikh Dawal al-Arab wal-Islam was also of the view the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was born on the 9th of Rabi ul-Awwal.
Shaikh Abdur Rahman Mubrakpuri in his Tuhfa brings the statement of Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi from his al-Tanqih in which he says,
“They are agreed the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was born on the Monday in the year of the elephant in the month of Rabi ul-Awwal, however, they differ with regards to the exact date of the month and there are four views, (1) 2nd Rabi ul-Awwal, (2) 8th Rabi ul-Awwal, (3) 10th Rabi ul-Awwal and the (4) 12th Rabi ul-Awwal.” (Tuhfa al-Ahwadhi Sharh Tirmidhi 4:295)