[Fateh Namah Sindh – Story Of The Conquest Of Sindh] – [The Introduction Of The Knowledge Of Hadith In The Indian Subcontinent]
Translated And Compiled By
Some Of The Companions Who Conquered The Indian Subcontinent (Hind / Sindh)
The conquering of Hind i.e. Sindh and Makran (modern day Balochistan in Pakistan and Iran) was during the caliphate of Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) before the famous Muhamad Bin Qasim. The Companions (Radi Allahu Anhum) already reached Hind / Sindh as mentioned by Ibn Kathir in his al-bidiyah wan nihiyah vol no.9 pg no.88. The companions (Radi Allahu Anhum) who entered Sindh were well known for having knowledge of hadith and the Islamic Sciences. Some of them are mentioned below:
Uthman ibn Abil ‘As Thaqafi (Radi Allahu Anhu)
He was the paternal uncle of Uthman Ibn Affan (Radi Allahu Anhu). Ibn Hazm wrote that he was a highly righteous companion, the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) made him the Amir of Ta’if. He carried out one expedition in Faris (Persia) and three in Hind. (Jamharatun Ansab ul-Arab pg no.266)
Ibn Abdul Bar mentioned that the people of Madinah and the people of Basrah narrated hadith from him. Imam Ahmad narrated a saying about him from Hasan Basri who said that I have never seen anyone more in virtue than Uthman Ibn Abul ‘As (Radi Allahu Anhu). We used to go to his house to narrate hadith from him. (Isti’ab bidhayl Asabah vol no.3 pg no.92)
Hakam ibn Abil ‘As Thaqafi (Radi Allahu Anhu)
The first expedition he did here was at Baruch (Gujarat) which was based on the command of his brother Uthman ibn Abil ‘As Thaqafi (Radi Allahu Anhu). (Futuh ul-Buldan pg no.430). The second time was in 23 Hijri where Makran was conquered (Tarikh ul-Islam vol no.2 pg no.48 and al-bidiyah wan nihiyah vol no.7 pg no.141). Imam Bukhari, Ibn Abdul Bar and Ibn Hibban counted him amongst the scholars of Basrah and Muhadithin. (at-Tarikh ul-Kabir vol no.1 pg no.229, Isti’ab vol no.1 pg no.306, Kitab ath-Thiqat vol no.1 pg no.39)
Rabi’ ibn Ziyad al-Harithi (Radi Allahu Anhu)
The Amir of Basrah Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Radi Allahu Anhu) sent him to lead an expedition at Makran and Kerman (modern day south east Iran) (Chach Nama pg no.73).
Hakam ibn Amr Tha’labi (Radi Allahu Anhu)
In the 23 of Hijri he was part of the conquest of Makran (Tarikh at-Tabari vol no.4 pg no.181, Isabah vol no.1 pg no.246). One of his narrations is present in Sahih Bukhari and he also has narrations present in other books of hadith.
Sihar ibn Abbas Abdi (Radi Allahu Anhu)
He was with Hakam Ibn Amr Tha’labi (Radi Allahu Anhu) in the conquest of Makran and through him Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) received the good news of the conquest and spoils of war. He narrated two or three ahadith from the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam). He was counted amongst the scholars of Basrah.
Abdullah ibn Umayr ash-Ja’i (Radi Allahu Anhu)
In the 23 of Hijri he was part of the expeditions of Faris and Makran. During this era he provided excellent assistance towards conquering Sijistan (part of modern day eastern Iran, southern Afghanistan and western Pakistan) and some connecting areas of Sindh.
Ubaydullah ibn Ma’mar Taymi Qurashi (Radi Allahu Anhu)
Uthman (Radi Allahu Anhu) sent him on an expedition to Makran in the 29th of Hijri. Urwah Ibn Zubair and Ibn Sirin narrated from him.
Mushaji’ Ibn Mas’ud Sulami (Radi Allahu Anhu)
In the 31 of Hijri he was part of the conquest of Qufs (modern day south Afghanistan and Balochistan) and Kerman. His narrations are present in the Sahihayn.
Abdurahman Ibn Samurah Qurashi Abshami (Radi Allahu Anhu)
He was part of conquering Khurasan, Sijistan, Zabulistan (modern day south Afghanistan) and Kabul etc. During these expeditions he was also part of conquering some areas of Sindh and Makran. He narrated from the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and many of the Kibar Tabi’in narrated from him such as Sa’id Ibn Musayib, Muhamad Ibn Sirin and Hasan Basri etc.
Sinan Ibn Salamah Ibn Muhbiq Huthali (Radi Allahu Anhu)
He entered Sindh in 42 Hijri for the first time and carried out expeditions. The second time he entered it he came back as a leader of the expedition and conquered a lot of areas.
In addition to the above, Suhail Ibn Adi Ansari, Asim Ibn Amr Tamimi, Abdullah Ibn Abdullah Ibn Utban Ansari, Mugirah Ibn Abul ‘As Thaqafi, Mundhar Ibn Jarud Abdi, Uthman Ibn Sa’d and other than them (Radi Allahu Anhum) were part of the conquests of Sindh and Makran.
All of these companions found blessings and success in Sindh. In the year 62 Hijri Sindh was blessed with the burial of Mundhar Ibn Jarud Abdi (Radi Allahu Anhu) who passed away here. According to some researchers he is the only companion buried in this land.
Arrival Of The Tabi’in And Taba Tabi’in In Sindh
During the beginning of the conquest of Sindh there were many scholars of the Tabi’in and Taba Tabi’in who were part of the expeditions. Some of them are below:
Hakim Ibn Jablah Abdi
He was alive during the time of the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) but sadly did not meet him. Khalifah Ibn Khiyat mentions that he was a judge in Sindh during the era of Uthman (Radi Allahu Anhu). (Tarikh Khalifah Ibn Khiyat). He was the first Islamic judge of Sindh.
He stayed in Sijistan, Makran and the surrounding areas in Sindh for at least two and a half years during the era of the rightly guided caliphs. He carried out expeditions as well as spreading knowledge. In the year 30 Hijri he was the scribe and administrator of Rabi’ Ibn Ziyad Harithi (Radi Allahu Anhu). He would fight for Islam and give Islamic verdicts. Ibn Sa’d has mentioned that in the era in which Hasan Basri was busy carrying out expeditions, Jabir Ibn Yazid would give Islamic verdicts in his place, and when Hasan Basri would return he would give Islamic verdicts. (Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol no.7 pg no.180).
Jabir Ibn Yazid Ju’fi Kufi
In the year 30 Hijri he was with Hasan Basri in the expeditions around Sindh. He also gave Islamic verdicts here.
Sa’d Ibn Hisham Ansari
He was the paternal cousin of the famous companion Anas Ibn Malik (Radi Allahu Anhu). Imam Bukhari and Ibn Sa’d have mentioned that he was martyed during the expeditions at Makran. (at-Tarikh al-Kabir vol no.2 pg no.67, Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol no.7 pg no.209). His narrations are mentioned in the six books of hadith.
From the above we can see how great scholars were around in the Sindh area and they spread their knowledge whilst being there. On one occasion the conqueror of Makran Ubaydullah Ma’mar Taymi (Radi Allahu Anhu) wrote to Abdullah Ibn Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) whilst being in Sindh and said, we have obtained peace and serenity here, we have no fear of enemies, we have lived in this area for seven years and we have become parents…(Isabah vol no.2 pg no.432)
The First Markaz For Spreading Hadith In Sindh Was In Debal (Part Of Modern Day Karachi)
Debal was the first city in Sindh to establish a hadith Markaz. The most famous scholar who taught in this area was Abdurahim Ibn Hamad Debali. Yaqut al-Hamawi said, “There is a group of Muhadithin who are attributed to this city.” (Mu’jam al-Buldan vol no.4 pg no.118). Ibn Jazari mentioned, “Debal is a coastal city in Sindh where a group of many scholars are attributed to it.” Khatib Baghdadi mentions the saying of the narrator Ahmad Ibn Imran that, “…My friend Khalf Ibn Muhamad ad-Debali al-Mawazini narrated to me that we heard from Ali Ibn Musa Debali at Debal….”(Tarikh Baghdad vol no.8 pg no.333). Afterwards these Debali scholars went to Baghdad and narrated the hadith as mentioned by Sam’ani, “Khalf Ibn Muhamad al-Muwazini ad-Debali narrated the hadith of Ali Ibn Musa Debali at Baghdad.” (Ansab Sam’ani mentioning Debal). Additionally, Abul Qasim Ibn Muhamad Debali narrated hadith from Abdurahim Ibn Yahya Debali in the city of Debal. Abu Nu’aym mentions the saying of his Shaykh Muhamad Ibn Ja’far Ibn Yusuf in Tarikh Isfahan that,”We heard from Abul Qasim Shu’ayb Ibn Muhamad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Shu’ayb ad-Debali said that we heard from Abdurahim Ibn Yahya ad-Debali. (Tarikh Isfahan vol no.1 pg no.345). I will mention other famous Sindhi scholars alongside him below:
Abdurahim Ibn Hamad Debali
His lineage goes back to the tribe of Thaqif who entered Debal with the expedition of Muhamad Ibn Qasim. He travelled from Debal to Basrah and that is where he became known for his knowledge and virtue. The grandfather of Imam Uqayli mentioned that a big scholar from Sindh came to Basrah who narrates hadith from A’mash and Amr Ibn Ubayd. (Lisan ul-Mizan vol no.4 pg no.410). Khatib al-Bagdadi mentions that he was from the well known pious scholars of his time and was similar to the likes of scholars such as Harith Mahasibi, Hatim Asam and Shafiq Balkhi etc. (Tarikh Bagdad vol no.8 pg no.9251)
Qays Ibn Yasar Sindi
He is mentioned by Ibn Makula in al-Kamil that Jubayl heard hadith from Qays Ibn Yasar. (al-Kamil vol no.1 pg no.272) In another part of al-Kamil Ibn Makula mentioned that Jubayl’s name is Muhamad Ibn Azaz Ibn Aws and he was killed in Sindh. (al-Kamil vol no.1 pg no.565). Both the student and teacher were present in Sindh at the same time.
Muhamd Ibn Azaz Ibn Aws known as Jubayl
He has been briefly mentioned above.
Yazid Ibn Abdullah Ibn Baysari Sindi Basri
He was a well known muhadith. He went to Basrah and narrated from the likes of Waqidi, Ibn Jurayj, Sufyan ath-Thawri etc. The likes of Ali Ibn Abu Hashim Tabari, Qawariri, Abu Dawud Tayalisi etc. narrated from him. (at-Tarikh ul-Kabir vol no.2 pg no.117, Kitab al-Jarh wa Ta’dil vol no.2 pg no.218)
Sindi Ibn Shimas Basri
He went from Sindh to Basrah and narrated from Ibn Sirin, Ata Ibn Abi Rabah etc. The likes of Musa Ibn Ismai’l etc. narrated from him. (Kitab al-Jarh wa Ta’dil vol no.2 pg no.721, Lisan ul-Mizan vol no.6 pg no.290)
Abu Umayah Abdurahaman Sindi Mawla Sulayman Ibn Abdul Malik
He was the scribe and administrator of Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz he narrated hadith from Anas Ibn Malik (Radi Allahu Anhu) and the likes of Khalid Ibn Yazid Ramli etc. narrated from him. He ended up residing in Palestine. (Tarikh ul-Islam by adh-Dhahabi and Tarikh ul-Kabir vol no.3 pg no.295)
Makhul Ibn Abdullah Sindi Shami
Most of the historians mention that he was from the captives of war from Kabul. However Ibn Hibban clarifies in Kitab ath-Thiqat that he was a Sindhi from the captives of war from Kabul. Another muhadith Ibn A’isha mentions that he was a Sindhi and did not speak clean Arabic. He was the slave of a lady from the tribe of Hudhayl. Overall he was a captive from one of the expeditions of Sijistan, Kabul or the surrounding Sindh area etc. (Rijal us-Sindh wal Hind pg no.137)
Abdurahman Ibn Amr Awza’i Dimishqi
Most of the historians mention that he was from the tribe of Awza’ however Dhahabi mentions that his original lineage goes back to the captives from Sindh (Tadhkiratul Huffadh) and that his origin and roots are from Sindh (Tarikh ul-Islam). Also the author who summarised Tahdhib ul-Kamal mentioned the same thing from Abu Zur’ah. The historians who attribute him to the tribe of Awza’ at the same time clarify that he was not from this tribe rather he used to live amongst them and that’s why he was attributed to them. (Tadhkiratul Huffadh vol no.1 pg no.168 and Rijal us-Sindh pg no.164)
The Muhadithin Who Came To Sindh
Umar Ibn Ubaydullah Ibn Ma’mar Qurashi Taymi
He was a great Tabi’i and conquered the city of Irma’il in Sindh in the year 140 Hijri. (Jamharatul Insab al-Arab). He narrated from Abban Ibn Affan. Khalifah Ibn Khiyat classified him as a one of the judges of Islam.
Mahlab Ibn Abi Safrah Azdi
He carried out expeditions in Sindh in the year 44 Hijri and he conquered Qandabil (modern day Balochistan). He narrated from Abdullah Ibn Umar, Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn ul-‘As and Bara Ibn ‘Azib (Radi Allahu Anhum. Those who narrated from him are Samak Ibn Harb, Abu Ishaq Sabi’i and Umar Ibn Thaqif etc. There are many narrations of his present in the books of hadith.
Karz Ibn Abu Karzuburah Abdi Harithi
In the year 45 Hijri he was part of the expeditions in Sindh by being a successor to Abdullah Ibn Siwar Abdi. He is from the era of the Taba Tabi’in. He narrated from the likes of Ta’us and Ata Ibn Abi Rabah etc. Those who narrate from him are Sufyan ath-Thawri and Fudhayl Ibn Gazwan etc.
Abul Yaman Ma’la Ibn Rashid Nabal Huthali Mawla Sinan Ibn Salamah
He used to stay with his master and be present in the expeditions of Sindh. He was present in the expeditions of Qayqan in the year 50 Hijri. He was one of the well known pious Muhadith scholars of Basrah. He narrated from the likes of Hasan Basri.
Abul Hasan Ma’la Ibn Ziyad Qardusi Basri
He is counted amongst the trustworthy pious worshipers of Basra. He came to Sindh many times. He narrates from the likes of Hasan Basri and Thabit Banani. The likes of Hammad Ibn Zayd narrates from him.
Kahmis Ibn Hasan Qaysi Basri
He was a very pious worshiper from the Muslim Ummah and was a Tabi’i. He was with Muhamad Ibn Qasim in the year 93 Hijri during some of the battles in Sindh. The likes of Waki’ Ibn Jarah and Abdullah Ibn Mubarak narrates from him.
Mu’awiya Ibn Qurah Ibn Iyas Muzani
He is the father of Iyas Ibn Mu’awiyah who was a Islamic Judge. He was a famous Tabi’i and trustworthy Muhadith. Ibn Kathir mentions that Abdul Malik sent him to Sindh where he worked hard in spreading the religion. He narrated from some companions such as Ma’qal Ibn Yasar, Abu Ayub al-Ansari, Hakam Ibn Abul ‘As Thaqafi, Abdullah Ibn Mugafal (Radi Allahu Anhum) and other than them such as scholars from the Tabi’in. The likes of Imam Zuhri narrates from him.
Musa Ibn Sinan Ibn Salamah Huthali Basri
He was with Muhamad Ibn Qasim during the conquests of Sindh. (Chach Namah pg no.101). He was a Tabi’i who narrated from Imran Ibn Husayn, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Bakrah, Abu Burzah, Ma’qal Ibn Yasar, Abdullah Ibn Ma’qal, Abdullah Ibn Umar, Abdullah Ibn Abas and Anas Ibn Malik (Radi Allahu Anhum)
Sa’id Ibn Aslam Ibn Zur’ah Kilabi
He became the Amir of Makran in Sindh on 75 Hijri or 78 Hijri. (Futuhul Buldan pg no.423) He narrated from Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Radi Allahu Anhu)
Za’idah Ibn Umayr Ta’i Kufi
He was with Muhamad Ibn Qasim during the conquests of Sindh and Multan. He provided a great amount of support during the conquests. (Futuhul Buldan pg no.423). Ibn Sa’d mentioned him amongst those people from Kufa who were Tabi’in and narrated from Abdullah Ibn Umar, Abdullah Ibn Abas, Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn ‘As, Jabir Ibn Abdullah, Nu’man Ibn Bashir and Abu Hurayrah (Radi Allahu Anhum). His brother, Rawah Ibn Umayr Ta’i, was also part of the conquests of Sindh with Muhamad Ibn Qasim.
Yazid Ibn Abu Kabshah Salsaki Dimishqi
He came to Sindh and died after 18 days. (Futuhul Buldan pg no.423). One of this narrations is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari in the book of Jihad regarding fasting whilst travelling.
Hakam Ibn Awanah Kalbi
He was part of the conquests of Sindh with Muhamad Ibn Qasim. Ibn Hajr mentions that he was a Tabi’i who narrated a lot of ahadith.
Atiyah Ibn Sa’d Awfi Kufi
He was part of the conquests of Sindh with Muhamad Ibn Qasim. He was made a leader of Maymanah. (Chach Namah pg no.101). He narrated from the likes of Abu Hurayrah, Abu Sa’id al-Khudri and Abdullah Ibn Abas (Radi Allahu Anhum).
Abu ar-Rabi’ Halwath Kalbi Mada’ini
He was part of the conquests of Sindh with Muhamad Ibn Qasim. He stayed here for a number of years after the battles. (Tarikh at-Tabari vol no.8 pg no.19). The likes of Imam Sufyan at-Thawri narrated from him.
Other Famous Scholars Who Had Sindhi Ancestry
After the conquest of Qayqan (an area in modern day Balochistan) a number of the local people became Muslim. In particular a tribe called Muqsim Qayqan. A person named Ibrahim was from this tribe and he would regularly go to Basrah to carry out trade and business. He ended up marrying a lady from Basrah who was from the tribe of Bani Shayban. Her name was called Ulayah Bint Hasan and from this marriage came many famous scholars and Muhadithin. Some of their names are as follows:
Abu Bishr Isma’il Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Muqsim who was famously attributed to his mother and known with the kunyah Ibn Ulayah
Rib’i Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Muqsim
Ishaq Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Muqsim
Ibrahim Ibn Isma’il Ibn Ibrahim
Hamad Ibn Isma’il Ibn Ibrahim
Muhamad Ibn Isma’il Ibn Ibrahim
All of them were known with the kunyah of Ibn Ulayah and were excellent scholars.
Students From Sindh Who Travelled To Seek Knowledge
The famous Imam Abul Abas al-Asm (Died 346 Hijri) used to teach in Baghdad. He had students of knowledge from around the entire world who would come and study from him. Imam Abu Abdullah Hakim said that I have not seen any study class in any city of the world of Islam which has students of knowledge from the East and West than the class of Imam Abul Abas al-Asm. It is also mentioned that a group of students of knowledge came from Mansura (Which is near modern day Shahdadpur in Pakistan), Multan and Sijistan etc. to his classes. (Ansab of Sam’ani vol no.1 pg no.9291).
Mansura Was Another City In Sindh Which Had Muhadithin
Mansura became a great Muslim city that thrived with knowledge as mentioned by Maqdisi Bashari that, “There is a lot of nobility and Islamic virtue and values there. There are plenty of scholars and knowledgeable people. Business is also thriving there and the people are very intelligent.” (Ahsanul Taqasim). He also goes on to say that, “Most of the scholars of Mansura are Ahlul Hadith. I saw Qadhi Abu Muhamad Mansuri who was an Imam of the Dawud Dhahiri madhab. He conducts lessons and authors books. He has written many good books.” (Tabaqatul Fuqaha Shayrazi)
Lahore, Qanuj And Qasdar
In Sindh, Lahore and Qanuj also gave rise to people of knowledge. Qalqashandi said, “The city of Lahore is a very big and blessed place. A group of scholars have come from here.” (Subhul A’shi vol no.5 pg no.76). Maqdisi Bashari said, “There are very big scholars in Qanuj.” The first person to have conquered Qasdar was Mundhir Ibn Jarud Abdi (Radi Allahu Anhu) in the year 62 Hijri.
Apart from the above there were numerous scholars who were from the Sindh region.
Books Written By Scholars From Sindh
Rabi’ Ibn Sabih was the first person to author a book in Basrah and after him it was Sa’id Ibn Abi Arubah. (al-Muhadith al-Fadhil pg no.611). After he added fiqhi codification to ahadith he went to Sindh for Jihad and died and was buried there in 160 Hijri according to the historians. Imam Bukhari mentions that he died in the land of Sindh in 160 Hijri. (at-Tarikh ul-Kabir vol no.2 pg no.285), Ibn Hajr also mentions this from Muhamad Ibn Muthana etc. (Tahdhib at-Tahdhib).
It has already been mentioned that Imam Makhul had Sindhi lineage. Ibn Nadim mentions that he authored two books, Kitab as-Sunan Fil Fiqh and Kitab ul-Masa’il Fil Fiqh. (al-Fihrist 118). Abu Ma’shar Sindhi Madani authored a book called Kitab ul-Maghazi in the same era that Muhamad Ibn Ishaq and Musa Ibn Uqbah authored Kitab ul-Maghazi in Madinah. In the year 270 Hijri a scholar from Mansurah who knew many languages, translated the Quran and wrote the tafsir of it in Sindhi for the Raja (ruler) of Aror (modern day Rohri in Sindh Pakistan, this city was once the capital of Sindh) called Mahruq Ibn Ra’iq. The purpose of it was to explain to him the teachings of Islam. It is reported that he used to explain the ayat of the Quran to the non-Muslim Raja in open court and remained there for a period of three years. It has been further stated that during the course of translation when the Muslim scholar reached the ayah in Surah Yasin “He said, ‘who will give life to the bones when they are totally rotten” (Quran 36 ayah 78) the Raja alighted from his throne and threw himself on the ground. He remained in a long prostration weeping bitterly in such a manner that his face was covered with dust. He then raised his head and addressed the court, “Indeed Allah is the sole Ilah, the nourishing benefactor of the whole world.” When the scholar returned to Mansurah he said that the non-Muslim Raja had accepted Islam but kept his intentions secret for loss of the throne. (Aja’ib ul-Hind)
There was a Muhadith called Abu Ja’far Sindhi who authored a book on Hadith. Imam Bukhari mentions that Amr Ibn Malik Rasibi borrowed the book of Abu Ja’far Sindhi and supplemented it with Ahadith. (Mizan ul-‘Itidal vol no.2 pg no.35)
Abu Ja’far Tusi mentions in Kitab ul-Fihrist that Abul Faraj Sindhi authored a book which was narrated through the chain of Muhadithin to us. (Mu’jam al-Musanifin vol no.3 pg no.33). Abul Faraj Sindhi was well known scholar of the past who narrated ahadith.
Ali Ibn Ahmad Debali’s book Adab al-Qadha was a well known accepted book of those who followed the Shafi’i madhab. Abu Umar Ahmad Ibn Sa’id Hindi Qurtubi was an exceptional scholar of this time. He authored a book on Ilm ash-Shurut which was very beneficial and detailed. This was widely accepted and relied upon by the scholars of Magrib and Andalus just as it has been mentioned by Qadhi Iyadh in Tartib al-Madarik.
Abu Nu’aim mentions that Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn Sindhi was an excellent scholar of Usul. (Tarikh Isfahan vol no.1 pg no.193) It seems as though he had a well known book of Usul.
Abu Bakr Muhamad Ibn Raja Ibn Sindhi Isfara’ini took the book of Sahih Muslim and narrated it through the chain of Imam Muslim’s teachers or the teachers above them. A book written like this is called an Istikhraj and Takhrij. This book was called Mustakhraj Abi Bakr Sindhi Isfara’ini where only a remnant of it is now available. He became well known as Sahib us-Sahih Ala Shart Muslim. (Tadhkiratul Huffadh vol no.2 pg no.230).
Abdullah Ibn Hasan Ibn Sindhi Andalusi authored a twenty volume book on Zuhd and Raqa’iq. Ibn Asakir mentions that the twentieth volume has been seen and a big group of Muhadithin have narrated in it. (Mukhtasar Tarikh Ibn Asakir vol no.7 pg no.363)
The Qadhi of Mansurah Abul Abas Ahmad Ibn Muhamad Mansuri had many durus and authored many books. Maqdisi Bashari mentions that he met him in Mansurah and wrote, “He has a well established study Majlis and authored many exceptional books.” (Ahsan ut-Taqasim)
Yaqut Hamawi wrote in Mu’jam al-Buldan, “He authored some books on the Dawudi (Dahiri) madhab.” Ibn Nadim mentions in al-Fihrist that he authored exceptionally good and great books. Some of them are Kitab ul-Misbah, Kitab ul-Hadi and Kitab un-Nir which has also been called Kitab un-Nirin. This book became so famous and well known that he became known from this book and was nicknamed author of Kitab un-Nirin as mentioned by Ibn Qaysarani in al-Insab ul-Mutafiqh. Sheyrazi attributed him as author of Kitab un-Nirin in Tabaqat ul-Fuqaha.
There were two Sindhi scholars who were students of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. They had unique knowledge of issues and specific narrations from him. One of them was called Hubaish Ibn Sindhi Baghdadi which Abul Khilal mentions about him that he was one of the major students of Imam Ahmad. He wrote twenty thousand ahadith from Imam Ahmad and he had two volumes of important Masa’il and Fatawa from Imam Ahmad which other students did not have. (Tabaqat ul-Hanabila vol no.1)
The other Sindhi scholar was Abu Bakr Sindhi Khwatimi which Abul Khilal mentions that he was equivalent in companionship and studentship as Abu Harith. He used to stay with Imam Ahmad and his children. He heard important and excellent Masa’il from Imam Ahmad.
Abu Musa Ibn Sindhi Jurjani narrated ahadith from Imam Waki’ Ibn Jarah. He had all of the books of Imam Waki’ and these books were counted as the best from him. Suhmi mentions in Tarikh Jurjan that he had the books of Imam Waki’. (Tarikh Jurjan pg no.426)
Abu Ja’far Muhamad Ibn Ibrahim Debali he narrated Sufyan Ibn Uyaynah’s book Kitab ut-Tafsir from Abu Abdullah Sa’id Ibn Abdurahman Makhzumi. He also narrated Abdullah Ibn ul-Mubarak’s book al-Bir Wa Sula from Abu Abdullah Husayn Ibn Hasan Marwazi who narrated it from Abdullah Ibn Mubarak. (al-Aqd ath-Thamin Fasi pg no.397). Muhamad Ibn Ibrahim Debali had the unique reputation of narrating these two books. The scholars of hadith used to narrate books from him.